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Since the seminal 1998 study linking adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and lifelong health, ACEs have included racism. Racial or race-based traumatic stress includes overt, covert, violent, threatening, interpersonal, community-level, onetime, periodic, or daily experiences. This chapter provides examples of historical and contemporary racial trauma in the United States to ground an understanding of the need to provide culturally and racially responsive care, illustrates how to recognize trauma symptoms associated with race-based stress, and concludes with practice recommendations.

Keywords: trauma-informed practice, racial trauma, resiliency

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