Respiratory distress in the neonate is one of the most common reasons for referral to a tertiary NICU, accounting for more than 20% of admissions. (1) The cause of respiratory distress can range from parenchymal lung disease to anomalies of any portion of the neonatal airway including the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, or bronchi. This review will focus on airway anomalies at or immediately below the level of the larynx. Although rare, those with such congenital or acquired laryngotracheal anomalies often require urgent evaluation and surgical intervention. This review describes 1) the pathophysiology associated with congenital and acquired laryngotracheal deformities in the neonate, 2) the clinical presentation and diagnostic evaluation of these anomalies, and 3) the current medical and surgical strategies available in the NICU and after discharge.

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