A single 20-mg dose of inhaled laninamivir octanoate is an effective treatment of influenza. However, the efficacy of laninamivir octanoate for the prevention of influenza in children <10 years of age has not yet been established.
We conducted a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study to determine whether the efficacy of a single 20-mg dose of inhaled laninamivir octanoate to prevent the development of influenza was superior to that of placebo as prophylaxis for influenza in pediatric (<10 years) household members of index cases. Eligible subjects without influenza, in contact with an influenza-infected index case living in the same household, were blindly randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 20 mg of laninamivir octanoate or placebo. The primary end point was the proportion of subjects who developed clinical influenza during a 10-day period.
A total of 343 subjects were randomly assigned, with 341 subjects included in the full analysis set for the primary analysis. The proportions of subjects who developed clinical influenza were 11% (18/171) in the laninamivir octanoate group and 19% (33/170) in the placebo group (P = .02). The relative risk reduction was 45.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.5% to 68.2%). The incidence of adverse events was similar in both groups.
A single 20-mg dose of inhaled laninamivir octanoate was effective and well tolerated as prophylaxis for influenza.