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Pediatrics is the official peer-reviewed journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics publishes original research, clinical observations, and special feature articles in the field of pediatrics, as broadly defined. Contributions pertinent to pediatrics also include related fields such as nutrition, surgery, dentistry, public health, child health services, human genetics, basic sciences, psychology, psychiatry, education, sociology, and nursing.

Pediatrics considers unsolicited manuscripts in the following categories: reports of original research, particularly clinical research; review articles; special articles; and case reports. When preparing a manuscript for Pediatrics, authors must first determine the manuscript type and then prepare the manuscript according to the specific instructions below.

The digital edition of Pediatrics is the journal of record. Some accepted article types may also be presented in full in print, in addition to the digital edition of Pediatrics.

Introduction

Manuscript Preparation

Manuscript Submission

Article Types

## Acceptance Criteria

Relevance to readers is of primary importance in manuscript selection. The readership includes general and specialist pediatricians, pediatric researchers and educators, and child health policy-makers. Pediatrics receives many more high-quality manuscripts than can be accommodated in our available space. The acceptance rate is approximately 10%. An article that is thought by the editors to not be relevant to readers, outside of scope, or very unlikely to be accepted may be rejected without review. All manuscripts considered for publication are peer reviewed, including those written by members of the Editorial Board. Peer reviewers are selected by the editors. Selection is based on their expertise in the topic of the manuscript. Generally, at least 2 reviews are required before a decision is rendered. Authors can suggest reviewers who they believe should not review the manuscript but should provide a clear rationale for this request.

Authors should carefully follow instructions for manuscript preparation and ensure that the manuscript is proofread before submission. Manuscripts that do not follow the author instructions will not be considered for review. Careless preparation of a manuscript raises concerns about the quality of the work and makes acceptance less likely. Manuscripts are electronically scanned for plagiarism. Authors will be contacted if there is concern about potential plagiarism. Pediatrics follows the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics for concerns about plagiarism or any other manuscript-related ethical issue.

Manuscripts are judged on the importance, originality, scientific strength, clinical relevance, and clarity of content. Pediatrics does not publish manuscripts that focus only on animal research. Refer to the sections below on the particular considerations for each of the manuscript types that appear in the journal. Authors should also consider the comprehensive reporting guidelines for a wide variety of study designs that are available at http://www.equator-network.org/home/. These can be helpful in improving manuscript clarity and completeness. Note that authors submitting manuscripts describing adverse drug or medical device events or product problems should also report these to the appropriate governmental agency. Responses to a published article should be submitted as online comments. The editors will determine which comments will be published in the journal as Letters to the Editor.

After the reviews are received, the editors may take one of the following actions: AcceptAccept with RevisionsReject with option to Resubmit; Reject, or Reject and Transfer (if authors opted to have their manuscript transferred to Hospital Pediatrics in not accepted by Pediatrics). A rejected manuscript may not be resubmitted. A manuscript may be rejected with an option to resubmit with extensive revision. The resubmitted manuscript receives an additional round of peer review (which may include new reviewers), and the manuscript may or may not be accepted. A decision of Accept with Revision indicates that the editors intend to accept the manuscript contingent on adequate response to reviewers. A decision of Accept, which is exceedingly rare on first submission, indicates that the manuscript is ready to place into production without further modification. Appeals on decisions will be considered by the editorial board on a case-by-case basis.

## Publication Ethics

Authorship. An “author” is someone who has made substantive intellectual contributions to a published study. Each author is required to meet ALL FOUR of the following criteria:

1. Substantial contribution(s) to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and
2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
3. Final approval of the version to be published, and
4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

NOTE: Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute a sufficient basis for authorship.

All persons listed as authors must meet these criteria, and all persons who meet these criteria must be listed as authors. Articles submitted with an unexpectedly large number of authors invite scrutiny by editors and reviewers for clear justification for the presence of each person on the authorship list. Pediatrics permits a statement of equal contribution for two first authors and two senior authors. On the title page, include asterisks by each name and a statement that reads: * Contributed equally as co-first authors or *Contributed equally as co-senior authors.

Decide authorship issues, including the order, before submission. Pediatrics does not allow addition or removal of authors or changes to the author order after a manuscript is submitted without explicit approval from the editors.

If published, author names and affiliations will appear as seen in the submitted manuscript Word document and the final typeset proofs. All authors must ensure that their information is correct.

Conflict of Interest and Disclosure. After a paper is accepted by Pediatrics for publication, all authors must submit conflict of interest and disclosure forms. Pediatrics adheres to the policy and uses the standardized disclosure form of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The collection of the forms is automated within the online system.

IRB Approval. All studies that involve human subjects must be approved or deemed exempt by an official institutional review board; this should be noted in the Methods section of the manuscript.

Industry Sponsorship. All industry sponsorship must be declared in the manuscript. Manuscripts in which all authors are employed by a commercial entity can raise additional scrutiny from the editorial board.

Registration of Clinical Trials. All clinical trials must be registered in a World Health organization-approved Clinical Trial registry prior to enrollment of the first subject. The registry name and registration number should be included on the title page. Reports of unregistered trials will be returned to authors without review. Publication of the results of a trial that was initiated prior to the ICMJE requirement for trial registration will be considered by the editors on a case-by-case basis.

Suspected Errors and Allegations of Misconduct. Pediatrics follows the processes outlined in the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowcharts when investigating suspected errors and allegations of misconduct. Please be aware that all investigations are confidential. If an error has been found or misconduct has been identified, the journal will publicly acknowledge the outcome through an erratum or retraction, depending on the severity of the issue. Investigations that result in no error or misconduct being found will not be publicized.

Editorial Board Members as Authors. The journal allows editorial board members to submit articles for consideration. These articles undergo the same rigorous peer review as all other submissions. The manuscript management system automatically blinds a user with administrative access from viewing a manuscript for which they are an author, so author editorial board members cannot view the manuscript from the administrative side once it has been submitted.

Editor Conflict of Interest: Journal editors recuse themselves from manuscripts for which they have a conflict of interest.

## Consideration of Race and Ethnicity

Race and ethnicity should be acknowledged as a social construct rather than as genetic or biological categories. The use of racial and/or ethnic categories in models and analyses, and the selection of comparison groups should be explicitly justified.  Research questions and interpretation of results should consider minority group members’ successes, the effects of racism (interpersonal, institution, or internalized), and histories of exclusion, mistreatment, and exploitation.  Research questions and interpretation of results should not focus on presumed deficits of minority group members, their individual behaviors, or perceived mistrust. Please see the AMA Manual of Style Section 11.12.3: Race and Ethnicity for more detailed guidance.

## Journal Style

All aspects of the manuscript, including the formatting of tables, illustrations, and references and grammar, punctuation, usage, and scientific writing style, should be prepared according to the most current AMA Manual of Style (http://www.amamanualofstyle.com).1

Author Listing. All authors’ names should be listed in their entirety, and should include institutional/professional affiliations and degrees held. If published, author names and affiliations will appear as seen in the submitted manuscript Word document and the final typeset proofs. All authors must ensure that their information is correct.

Authoring Groups. To include an authoring group, note the following to ensure all individuals are correctly acknowledged:

• On the title page, list any study group at the end of the author listing, preceded either by "for" or "on behalf of" and followed by an asterisk, such as: "on behalf of the XXXXX Study Group*."
• Add the following line: “*A complete list of study group members appears in the Acknowledgments.” (Alternatively, list these non-author contributors in an Appendix and change the statement accordingly.)
• Ensure that your Acknowledgments section, placed at the end of the main text and before the References, clearly delineates group members and non-group members. For example: "Members of Study Group ABC include: Person 1, Person 2, Person 3, Person 4. We also wish to acknowledge Person 5 and Person 6 for technical editing."
• Do not list the group name as an author in the online metadata section. Only authors who fulfill all four authorship criteria should be included in the online metadata, the title page, and the contributors statement page. These authors should not be included in the acknowledgments, which are reserved for thanking non-author contributors.

Titles.  Pediatrics generally follows the guidelines of the AMA Manual of Style for titles. Titles should be concise and informative, containing the key topics of the work. Declarative sentences are discouraged as they tend to overemphasize a conclusion, as are questions, which are more appropriate for editorials and commentaries. Subtitles, if used, should expand on the title; however, the title should be able to stand on its own. It is appropriate to include the study design (“Randomized Controlled Trial”; “Prospective Cohort Study”, etc.) in subtitles. The location of a study should be included only when the results are unique to that location and not generalizable. Abbreviations and acronyms should be avoided. The full title will appear on the article, the inside table of contents, and in MEDLINE. Full titles are limited to 97 characters, including spaces. Short titles must be provided as well and are limited to 55 characters, including spaces. Short titles may appear on the cover of the journal as space permits in any given issue.

Abbreviations. List and define abbreviations on the Title Page. Unusual abbreviations should be avoided. All terms to be abbreviated in the text should also be spelled out at first mention, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. The abbreviation may appear in the text thereafter. Abbreviations may be used in the abstract if they occur 3 or more times in the abstract. Abbreviations should be avoided in tables and figures; if used they should be redefined in footnotes.

Units of Measure. Like many US-based journals, Pediatrics uses a combination of Système International (SI)2,3 and conventional units. Please see the AMA Manual of Style for details.

Proprietary Products. Authors should use nonproprietary names of drugs or devices unless mention of a trade name is pertinent to the discussion. If a proprietary product is cited, the name and location of the manufacturer must also be included.

Page/Line Numbers. Include page numbers and line numbers in your manuscript so that editors and peer reviewers may more easily point out items/revisions. Line numbers may be continuous or restart on each page.

References. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. Citations should be numbered in the order in which they appear in the text. Reference style should follow that of the AMA Manual of Style, current edition. Abbreviated journal names should reflect the style of Index Medicus. Visit: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals. If you used reference management software (eg, EndNote) to prepare your manuscript, you must convert the file to plain text prior to submission. Please note: The generated HTML page with the References is for staff/editorial use only; please do not use Word line numbering on your references.

References

1. Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.
2. Lundberg GD. SI unit implementation: the next step. JAMA. 1988;260:73-76.
3. Système International conversion factors for frequently used laboratory components. JAMA. 1991;266:45-47.

## Clinical Trials

A study is considered a clinical trial if it prospectively assigns human subjects (whether randomized or not) to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, and the like.

If authors report the results of a clinical trial, they must affirm that the study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov or another WHO-approved national or international registry prior to the enrollment of the first subject. Information on requirements and appropriate registries is available at www.icmje.org. The trial registry name, registration number, and date of registration must be listed on the title page. To facilitate the review, please also provide the web link to the registration on the title page. Please also provide this registration information in the main methods section of the report.

All articles reporting results of clinical trials must include the Data Sharing Statement on their Title Page.

Authors are also required to complete both pages of a CONSORT Form (flowchart and checklist) and submit these with their manuscript. In our submission system, these files appear under “Instructions and Forms.” For observational epidemiological studies, follow the appropriate STROBE checklist.

## Reuse of Data Sets

If a manuscript uses the same or similar data contained in previously published articles, the authors must state this in the cover letter (and provide citations to the related or possibly duplicative materials).

If a separate manuscript by the same authors using the same data set is under review or accepted but not yet published in another journal, the authors must state this in the cover letter and provide enough information to assure that the manuscript submitted to Pediatrics is not duplicative.

## Data Sharing

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requires ICMJE journals to include data sharing statements in articles that report results of clinical trials.

Data sharing statements must include:

• Whether deidentified participant data (including data dictionaries) will be shared
• The data that will be shared
• The start and end dates of data availability
• Access criteria
• How the data will be made available

The data sharing statement must be included on the title page of your manuscript and entered into the section provided in the manuscript management system.

If you will not be sharing your data, insert the following statement on your title page and in the manuscript submission system.

Data Sharing Statement: Deidentified individual participant data will not be made available.

If you will be sharing your data, refer to the table in the data sharing section of the ICMJE clinical trials page for examples of how to incorporate the required information into your statement, and refer to the example below.

Data Sharing Statement: Deidentified individual participant data (including data dictionaries) will be made available, in addition to study protocols, the statistical analysis plan, and the informed consent form. The data will be made available upon publication to researchers who provide a methodologically sound proposal for use in achieving the goals of the approved proposal. Proposals should be submitted to ____________[INSERT EMAIL ADDRESS OR OTHER CONTACT INFORMATION].

## Open Access

Pediatrics primarily publishes under the traditional subscription model (Hybrid OA), with a 12-month embargo, but also offers Green OA and Gold OA options. You will be able to state your requirements during the manuscript submission process. If you have any questions, please reach out to the journal’s editorial staff before final submission.

## Formatting Requirements

All submissions must adhere to the following format:

• Typeset in portrait orientation
• Times New Roman font, size 12, black
• Title Page, Contributors' Statement Page, Abstract, Acknowledgments,
and References should be single-spaced
• Only the Main Body Text should be double-spaced
• Main Submission Document as a Microsoft Word file (no PDFs)
• Include line and page numbering in your Word document (excluding the References).
• Do not include page headers or footers in new submissions.
• Do not include footnotes within the manuscript body. Footnotes are allowed only in tables/figures.

Refer to the “Article Types” section for specific guidelines on preparing a manuscript in each category. Note in particular the requirements regarding abstracts for different categories of article.

## Double-Blind Peer Review Manuscript Formatting

The journal offers the option of selecting single-blind or double-blind peer review. If selecting double-blind peer review, you must prepare your manuscript according to the following guidelines.

1. Upload a SEPARATE document (Word format only) containing your complete Title Page and Contributors’ Statement Page. Include ALL required Title Page and Contributors’ Statement Page information or your submission will be returned to you for correction.
3. Please make sure none of your other files have any identifying information on them, including the name of your institution. If you wish to include acknowledgments, include an Acknowledgments section on the title page (see Title Page).
4. In your manuscript file, remove references to the specific institution at which the study was performed and replace those mentions with generic descriptors of the setting as appropriate (eg, our 400-bed freestanding children’s hospital in the southeastern US).

## Title Page

The Title Page should appear first in your manuscript document if selecting single-blind peer review, or as a separate file if selecting double-blind peer review. If you select double-blind peer review and are including acknowledgments, those should appear at the end of the Title Page file. Depending on the individual needs of a paper, may encompass more than one page.

Title pages for all submissions must include the following items (as shown in the sample Title Page):

1. Title (97 characters [including spaces] or fewer)
2. Author listing. Full names for all authors, including degrees, and institutional/professional affiliations. These affiliations should list the institution where the research presented in the article took place; if the affiliation has changed, add a note indicating the additional affiliation. If published, author names and affiliations will appear as seen in the submitted manuscript Word document and the final typeset proofs; all authors must ensure that their information is correct. Pediatrics permits a statement of equal contribution for two first authors and two senior authors; on the title page, include asterisks by each name and a statement that reads: * Contributed equally as co-first authors or * Contributed equally as co-senior authors.
3. Corresponding Author. Contact information for the Corresponding Author (including: name, address, telephone, and e-mail). Note that the affiliation should list the institution where the research presented in the article took place; if the affiliation has changed, add a note indicating the additional affiliation. Pediatrics allows one Corresponding Author only; the position of Corresponding Author does not imply seniority or any other status.
4. Short title (55 characters [including spaces] or fewer). Please note: The short title may be used on the cover of the print edition.
5. Conflict of Interest Disclosures for all authors. This includes any potential conflicts of interest, any relevant financial relationships, and any other relationships or activities that could be perceived to have influenced the work. If none, say "The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article to disclose.”
6. Funding/Support. Research or project support, including internal funding, should be listed here; if the project was done with no specific support, please note that here. Technical and other assistance should be identified in Acknowledgments. If your funding body has open access requirements, please contact the Editorial Office prior to submission. Pediatrics offers Green OA and Gold OA options.
7. If applicable, Clinical Trial registry name, registration number, and data sharing statement. We adhere to ICMJE guidelines, which require that all trials must be registered with ClinicalTrials.gov or any other WHO Primary registry. All articles reporting results of clinical trials must also include the Data Sharing Statement.
8. Abbreviations. List and define abbreviations used in the text. If none, say "Abbreviations: none".
9. Article Summary. All articles with abstracts require this summary. This brief summary is limited to 25 words. For accepted manuscripts, this will appear under the author names in the table of contents to give the reader a brief insight into what the article is about. It should entice the reader to read the full article. For example: "Through linkage of state Medicaid and Child Protective Services databases, this study captures similarities and differences in health care expenditures based on a history of child maltreatment."
10. For Regular Article submissions, include both the “What’s Known on This Subject" and the "What This Study Adds” summaries (see below under Regular Article type for description). These are not needed for any other article type.

If a title page does not include all of the above items, the submission may be returned to the authors for completion.

## Contributors' Statement Page

All submissions (excluding Commentaries) must contain a Contributors’ Statement Page, directly following the Title Page(s) and in the specific format described below. Manuscripts lacking a properly formatted Contributors' Statement Page will be returned to the authors for correction. If you select double-blind peer review, the Contributors’ Statement Page should be part of your separate Title Page file.

All persons designated as authors must qualify for authorship (see "Publication Ethics" above), and all those who qualify should be listed. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. The Contributors' Statement Page lists the authors and specifies the contribution(s) made by each individual. If multiple individuals have identical contributions they may be listed together; do not list an author more than once.

You must follow the required format when creating your Contributors’ Statement Page or your manuscript will be returned for correction.

• Each author should only appear once.
• Use names, not initials.
• If multiple authors have identical contributions, you can list them in the same sentence; otherwise, list each author separately.
• Conclude your statement by confirming that: All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

#### Sample Contributors' Statement:

Dr Smith and Prof Jones conceptualized and designed the study, drafted the initial manuscript, and reviewed and revised the manuscript.
Drs Brown, Grey, and Black and Ms Johnson designed the data collection instruments, collected data, carried out the initial analyses, and reviewed and revised the manuscript.
Dr Green conceptualized and designed the study, coordinated and supervised data collection, and critically reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content.
All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

Note:

Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of a research group alone does not constitute a sufficient basis for authorship. Contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship (such as persons who helped recruit patients for the study, or professional editors) should be listed in an Acknowledgments section placed after the manuscript’s conclusion and before the References section. Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, these persons must give written permission to be acknowledged. These permissions do not need to be submitted with the manuscript unless requested by the editors.

## Word Count

To determine article length, count the body of the manuscript (from the start of the Introduction to the end of the Conclusion). The title page, contributors' statement page, abstract, acknowledgments, references, figures, tables, and multimedia are not included.

## Figures, Tables, and Supplementary Material

For any figure, table, or supplementary material reproduced or adapted from another source, authors are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder, and proof of permission must be uploaded at the time of submission. The legend must include a statement that the material was used or adapted with permission.

### Figures

Authors should number figures in the order in which they appear in the text. Figures include graphs, charts, photographs, and illustrations. Each figure must include a legend (placed in a list appearing after the References) that does not exceed 50 words. Abbreviations previously expanded in the text are acceptable. Upload figures as separate files; list figure legends as the last item in your main Word/text file. Do not paste figures into your manuscript text/Word file. There is no charge or maximum number for figures.

Figure arrays should be clearly labeled, preassembled, and submitted to scale. Figure parts of an array (A, B, C, etc.) should be clearly marked in capital letters in the upper left-hand corner of each figure part.

Style for figures:  Readers should be able to understand figures without referring to the text. Avoid pie charts, 3-dimensional graphs, and excess ink in general. Make sure that the axes on graphs are labeled, including units of measurement, and that the font is large enough to read. Generally delete legends or other material from the graph if it makes the picture smaller. Color graphs should be interpretable if photocopied in black and white.

Technical requirements for figures: The following file types are acceptable: TIFF, PDF, EPS. Color files must be submitted in their original RGB color. Pediatrics cannot accept Excel or PowerPoint files for any part of your submission.

The height of all figures should be less than or equal to 9.25” / 23.5 cm / 55.5 picas. The width of figures should be no smaller than 3.33" / 8.5 cm / 20 picas and no larger than 7" / 17.5 cm / 41.5 picas. Figure resolution should be 300 dpi for halftones (images with no text or line art), 600 dpi for combination halftones (images with text or line art), or 1000 dpi for monochrome line art.

For text within the figures, please use the same font for all figures in your manuscript, and use a standard
font such as Arial, Helvetica, Times, Symbol, Mathematical Pi, and European Pi. Do not use varying letter type sizes within a single figure; use the same size or similar sizes throughout. The preferred font size is 8 points; the minimum font size is 6 points.

Remember to upload figures as separate files; list figure legends as the last item in your main Word/text file. Do not paste figures into your manuscript text/Word file.

### Tables

Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text and include appropriate headers. Tables should not reiterate information presented in the Results section, but rather should provide clear and concise data that further illustrate the main point. Tabular data should directly relate to the hypothesis. Table formatting should follow the current edition of the AMA Manual of Style. There is no maximum number of tables.

Technical requirements for tables: Tables should be constructed using a Microsoft Word program and inserted either in numerical order at the end of the main Word document (following the references) or as separate files. Tables may use any legible font size and may appear in portrait or landscape orientation; however, the main manuscript text pages must remain in portrait orientation. Do not provide tables in scan/image format. Pediatrics cannot accept Excel or PowerPoint files for any part of your submission.

• Do NOT include linked or cross-referencing cell functions and formulas in your Word document tables, as these can cause a file conversion error in the manuscript submission system.

Style for tables:  Tables should be self-explanatory. Avoid abbreviations; define any abbreviations in footnotes to the table. Avoid excess digits and excess ink in general. Where possible, rows should be in a meaningful order (eg, descending order of frequency). Provide units of measurement for all numbers. In general, only one type of data should be in each column of the table.

Presentation of Numbers and Statistics

• Results in the abstract and the paper generally should include estimates of effect size and 95% confidence intervals, not just P values or statements that a difference is statistically significant. Where possible, focus on absolute and not relative differences. Measures of clinical impact like the number needed to treat can be especially helpful for our readers.
• All statistical methods should be clearly described.
• Units of independent variables must be provided in tables and results sections if regression coefficients are provided.
• Equations should be typed exactly as they are to appear in the final manuscript. The following table, adapted from the guidelines for authors for the Annals of Internal Medicine by editors of Medical Decision Making, shows how to present certain percentages and some statistical measures:
Reporting: Details:
Percentages

Report percentages to one decimal place (ie, xx.x%) when sample size is greater than or equal to 200.

To avoid the appearance of a level of precision that is not present with small samples, do not use decimal places (ie, xx%, not xx.x%) when sample size is less than 200.

Error Measures

Report confidence intervals, rather than standard errors, when possible. Use "mean (error measures)" rather than "mean ± error measure" notation.

P values

Except when one-sided tests are required by study design, such as in noninferiority trials, all reported P values should be two-sided. In general, P values larger than 0.01 should be reported to two decimal places, those between 0.01 and 0.001 to three decimal places; P values smaller than 0.001 should be reported as P [is less than sign]0.001. Notable exceptions to this policy include P values arising in the application of stopping rules to the analysis of clinical trials and genetic-screening studies.

"Trend"

Use the word trend when describing a test for trend or dose-response.

Avoid the term "trend" when referring to p-values near but not below 0.05. In such instances, simply report a difference and the confidence interval of the difference (if appropriate) with or without the p-value.

### Supplemental Information

Authors may wish to include additional information in an appendix as part of their article. References to any online supplemental information must appear in the main article. Such supplemental information can include but are not limited to additional tables, figures, videos, audio files, slide shows, data sets (including qualitative data), and online appendices. If your study is based on a survey, consider submitting your survey instrument or the key questions as a data supplement. Authors are responsible for clearly labeling supplemental information and are accountable for its accuracy. Supplemental information will be peer reviewed, but not professionally copyedited.

### Videos

Pediatrics encourages the submission of videos to accompany articles where relevant. Links can be placed in the article for use when it is accessed electronically. All videos must adhere to the same general permission rules that apply to figures (ie, parental consent when a patient is identifiable).

All videos should be submitted at the desired reproduction size and length. To avoid excessive delays in downloading the files, videos should be no more than 6MB in size and run between 30 and 60 seconds in length. In addition, cropping frames and image sizes can significantly reduce file sizes. Files submitted can be looped to play more than once, provided the file size does not become excessive. Video format must be either .mov or .mp4.

Authors will be notified if problems exist with videos as submitted and will be asked to modify them if needed. No editing will be done to the videos at the editorial office—all changes are the responsibility of the author.

Video files should be named clearly to correspond with the figure they represent (ie, figure1.mov, figure2.mp4, etc.). Be sure all video files have filenames that are no more than 8 characters long and include the suffix “.mov” or ".mp4." A caption for each video should be provided (preferably in a similarly named Word file submitted with the videos) stating clearly the content of the video presentation and its relevance to the materials submitted.

IMPORTANT: One to four traditional still images from the video must be provided. These still images may be published with the article and will act as thumbnail images that will link to the full video file. Please indicate clearly in your text whether a figure has a video associated with it, and be sure to indicate the name of the corresponding video file. A brief figure legend should also be provided.

## Regular Article

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (structured, as noted below)
Article length: 3,000 words or fewer

Regular Articles are original research contributions that aim to inform clinical practice or the understanding of a disease process. Regular Articles include but are not limited to clinical trials, interventional studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, epidemiologic assessments, and surveys. Components of a Regular Article include:

• What’s Known on This Subject

These two brief summaries are each limited to 40 words. Please use precise and accurate language in paragraph form (ie, not bullet points). For manuscripts accepted as Regular Articles, these summaries will become a highly visible part of your published paper, with prominence on the first page. Moreover, these summaries may be highlighted and presented in other areas of the journal. It is therefore paramount that you use language of the same caliber as the rest of your paper.

• Structured Abstract (four paragraphs with headings in boldface type; single-spaced)

The abstract should consist of: Objectives or Background and Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. The Objective should clearly state the hypothesis; Methods, inclusion criteria and study design; Results, the outcome of the study; and Conclusions, the outcome in relation to the hypothesis and possible directions of future study.

• Body of Article

• Introduction

A 1- to 2-paragraph introduction outlining the wider context that generated the study and the hypothesis.

• Methods

This section should detail inclusion criteria and study design to ensure reproducibility of the research. All studies that involve human subjects must be approved or deemed exempt by an official institutional review board; this should be noted here.

• Results

This section should give specific answers to the aims or questions stated in the introduction.  The order of presentation of results should parallel the order of the methods section.

• Discussion

The section should highlight antecedent literature on the topic and how the current study changes the understanding of a disease process or clinical situation. It should include a section on the limitations of the present study.

• Conclusion

A brief concluding paragraph presenting the implications of the study results and possible new research directions on the subject.

General submission instructions (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) apply to Regular Articles.

## Research Briefs

Abstract length: no abstract
Article length: 700 words or fewer
References:
Up to 10 references can be cited.

Research Briefs summarize original research describing preliminary findings or descriptive studies that although meaningful are better suited to a shorter, focused report than other article types that appear in the journal. Although there is no restriction on the type of study design for Research Briefs, clinical trials are in most cases better suited for submission as a Regular Article.

Authors should follow the following format.

Introduction
A brief paragraph summarizing the context of the report and any hypotheses.

Methods
A concise description of the study design and approach.  All studies that involve human subjects must be approved or deemed exempt by an official institutional review board; this should be noted here.

Results
A concise description of the findings.  A combined total of two tables or figures can be used.

Discussion
A concise summary of how the findings influence the understanding of the topic.  The limitations should be clearly described.  Special attention should be on the implications and next steps that are needed beyond a statement that more research is needed.

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no heading, single paragraph)
Article length: 3,000 words or fewer
Author limit: Four (4)  (All authors need to have been engaged in the advocacy work being described in the case study. Additional authors can be added with permission of the editors.)

Advocacy Case Studies describe a specific, organized effort in child advocacy that results in changes to systems that affect child health and well-being.

These reports should focus on the advocacy process and outcomes of the intervention, not the evidence that underlies the advocacy work. We encourage reports that provide lessons that others could adopt.

Authors should follow the following format.

Introduction
What was the problem? Describe the local environment, situation, and motivation for the advocacy work. What was the overall goal of the advocacy work? Be specific and include objectives.

Methods and Process
Who was involved in the advocacy work? Describe the stakeholders involved and how they were brought together. What was the approach of the advocacy work? Describe the challenges faced and how they were addressed. How was success defined and measured? What sources of assistance or support was central to the advocacy work?

Outcomes
What were the results of your advocacy? Link these to the goals and objectives. Describe any communication of these results if integral to sustaining the project.

Lessons Learned
What are the lessons learned from the advocacy work that are relevant for pediatricians and other child health care providers?

Conclusions

The general submission instructions (including cover letter, title page, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Advocacy Case Studies.

## Case Report

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
Article length: 1,600 words or fewer
Author limit: Seven (7) authors or fewer (with rare exception)

Case Reports highlight unique presentations or aspects of disease processes that may expand the differential diagnosis and improve patient care. In general, case reports will include 10 cases or fewer. For a manuscript to be considered a Case Report, it must meet at least one of the following three criteria:

1. Challenge an existing clinical or pathophysiologic paradigm.
2. Provide a starting point for novel hypothesis-testing pre-clinical or clinical research.
3. Focus on topics pertinent to the pediatric generalist, allowing pediatrics colleagues to provide improved care. (Manuscripts meeting this criterion will be prioritized over other submissions.)

Case Reports should consist of an unstructured abstract that summarizes the case(s), a brief introduction (recommended length, 1-2 paragraphs), a section that details patient presentation, initial diagnosis and outcome, as well as a discussion that includes a brief review of the relevant literature and describes how this case brings new understanding about the presentation, diagnostic approach, and/or novel treatment of a disease. Case Reports that merely present, for example, the third published case of a clinical condition, that describe a patient who has 2 rare conditions, or that detail the youngest patient with a well-described disease do not on those merits alone meet the bar for publication in Pediatrics.

Authors may find the criteria for case reports as contained in the CARE guidelines useful in preparing their manuscript.

Written consent must be obtained from the parent or guardian. You do not need to include a copy with your submission unless the patient may be identifiable; however, a copy must be provided to Pediatrics upon request. Pediatrics does not supply a consent form.

The general submission instructions (including cover letter, title page, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Case Reports. Do not include "a case report" or similiar language in your title as this is redundant; published manuscripts will appear in the Case Reports section.

## Commentary

Abstract length: no abstract
Article length: 400 to 800 words

Commentaries are solicited by the editors. These contributions usually pertain to and are published concurrently with a specific article; the commentary serves to launch a broader discussion of a topic. The general submission instructions (including cover letter, title page, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to commentaries). Further instructions will be sent to authors after they are invited to write a commentary. Unsolicited opinion pieces are published as Pediatrics Perspectives. Responses to published articles should be submitted as online Comments.

## Diagnostic Dilemmas and Clinical Reasoning

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
NOTE: Abstracts must not reveal the final diagnosis

Article length: 3,500 words or fewer

Author limit: Seven (7) authors or fewer

Diagnostic Dilemmas and Clinical Reasoning articles are interactive case studies with comments inserted by generalists and specialists asked to comment on the case, simulating what might occur in an oral case presentation.

The goal of this feature is to present clinical cases that are diagnostic dilemmas and that involve the input of both generalists and subspecialists who comment as segments of the case are presented, similar to Ethics Rounds feature articles. Each case presented should generate a dialogue about unusual or complicated disease processes and stimulate discussion about clinical reasoning. The initial case description should include the chief complaint and enough information to generate an initial differential diagnosis. Clinical details should alternate with input from generalists and from subspecialists as the case evolves and as the ultimate diagnosis is made. The case should culminate with a brief summary (750–1,000 words) of the key points of the case and of the ultimate diagnosis. Use of media, such as radiology studies, pathology specimens, or video clips as, is encouraged to complement the discussion.

• Authors may come from any institution. The case may be one that was discussed in the hospital’s teaching rounds (many hospitals have sessions entitled Case Conference, CPC, Professorial Rounds, or something similar).
• Manuscripts will be submitted for peer review, with acceptance contingent on positive peer reviews and input from the editorial board.
• All cases should be real cases.
• Written consent must be obtained from the parent or guardian, and authors should use their cover letter to attest that they have this consent. You do not need to include a copy with your initial submission unless the patient may be identifiable; however, a copy must be provided to PEDIATRICS upon request. If you upload consent, do so as a Supplemental File and be sure to click the 'internal use only' box for that file.
• Instances where there are extenuating circumstances in which family consent may be problematic will be handled on a case-by-case basis. If a case is published without family consent, enough elements should be changed so that the patient and family are not recognizable. If the case is too unique to be disguised, then those involved in the care of the patient cannot be authors, and the published paper must have no link to the institution where the case took place.
• The requirements of local institutional review boards should be followed.
• Authorship: As with all article types, authors must fulfill the ICJME criteria for authorship.

Questions can be addressed to Andrea Cruz, MD, MPH, section editor for Diagnostic Dilemmas and Clinical Reasoning, here.

## Ethics Rounds

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
Article length: varies (see below)

Ethics Rounds present discussions of cases that illustrate ethical dilemmas in patient care, research, or administration. Authors who have a case that raises ethical issues and who want to submit a paper for Ethics Rounds should email Associate Editor Armand Antommaria (email).

Ethics Rounds usually consist of an abstract, brief introduction, a case followed by several commentaries, the outcome of the case, and a conclusion. The abstract should summarize the commentators’ substantiative conclusions in addition to briefly describing the case. The case can involve clinical, research, or organizational ethics. It should conclude with an ethical dilemma or conflict, and the need for an individual or group to act. Cases are typically 250 to 300 words in length. If the case is based on the care of an actual patient, informed consent should be obtained from the adult patient or the parents or guardian of a minor patient, or the case should be sufficiently anonymized that the participants cannot recognize it. Cases can also be a composite of the care of several actual patients. The case is usually followed by 2-3 commentaries that are all included in the article. Each commentary usually has 1-2 authors. The author(s) of the case are typically among the commentators. If there are 2 commentaries, they should each be 1,200 or fewer words and, if there are 3, each should be 800 or fewer words. It is preferable that the commentaries’ authors represent different institutions, disciplines, and/or perspectives. Commentaries should not introduce new information about the case and should not be repetitive. Ethics Rounds generally conclude with a description of the outcome of the case and a brief comment by the Section Editor. Potential authors are strongly encouraged to review recently published Ethics Rounds to familiarize themselves with the format and topics that have already been covered.

The general submission instructions (including cover letter, title page, contributors' statement page, abstract, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements, also apply to Ethics Rounds). For more information on this section's format and submission process, see the blog Publishing Ethics in Pediatrics.

## Family Partnerships

Abstract length: No abstract
Article length: 2,000 words or fewer
Author limit: None
Reference limit: 10 references or fewer

Family Partnerships articles provide the opportunity to highlight steps taken together toward achieving comprehensive, coordinated, family-centered care for children, youth, and their families. These articles also provide the opportunity to illustrate family/professional partnership related to policy development, advocacy, health systems transformation, quality improvement, and research. Articles should be written collaboratively, reflect shared experiences, and include generalizable suggestions for improving health care. Examples of topics that articles could address include shared decision-making, stakeholder engagement, technology to improve care, health care disparities, and medical education. Potential authors are strongly encouraged to review recently published Family Partnerships articles to familiarize themselves with the format and topics already covered. Authors with questions about a potential Family Partnerships article can email Cara Coleman, Associate Editor, at ccoleman@familyvoices.org.

Specific points to consider: Articles should include at least one author with lived experience related to the topic or the article and one author who is a healthcare professional. While it is acceptable for authors to write sections individually from their viewpoint, the introduction and conclusion should be written jointly reflecting a shared point of view. Articles should present a broad perspective with generalizable lessons about how to improve health care even if an individual’s story is the focus of the narrative.

## Features

Abstract length: no abstract
Article length: 1,200 words or fewer

The Features section offers an opportunity to gain insight into aspects of our field: past, present, and future.

While Features articles may be invited, submissions are welcome and any queries or proposals should be directed to the editors of their respective columns: Allison Lopez, MD (allison.lopez@ascension.org) for Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion; Jay Berkelhamer, MD (jayeb@att.net) for Global Health; Robert Dudas, MD (rdudas@jhmi.edu) for COMSEP; Hanna Saltzman, MD (SOPTpediatrics@aap.org) for SOPT; and Jeffrey Baker, MD (jeffrey.baker@dm.duke.edu) for the AAP Gartner Pediatric History Center.

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Features.

Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Feature

The goal of the Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Feature is to highlight areas in which bias, discrimination, racism, and inequity have impacted the health of children and their families. Topics discussed should question assumptions of traditionally held beliefs of race and other social constructs and encourage the promotion of health equity. Suggested topics include, but are not limited to: the impact of social or structural factors on health, with respect to housing and geography, health care access, transportation, education, wealth, law, policy, and justice system involvement.   Primary research, regardless of scope, should not be submitted to this section; please see additional Pediatrics Author Guidelines for research submissions. Specific questions may be directed to Section EditorAllison Lopez, MD (contact).

SOPT Feature

This section publishes insightful updates and opinion articles on all aspects of pediatrics, written from the unique perspective of the trainee.

The goal of the editorial board of the AAP Section on Pediatric Trainees (SOPT) Feature is to work with trainee authors to develop thoughtful and timely articles related to pediatrics that appeal to everyone from medical students to well-seasoned practitioners. Topic content that focuses on training in pediatric medicine is preferred, but a range of other content areas will be considered. Topics should be relevant to students, residents, and fellows, but also of general interest to the readership of Pediatrics. The issue being discussed must be uniquely viewed from the trainee’s perspective, not from that of the supervisor, educator, or attending.

A few questions to consider when writing include: Why is the issue important? What is causing the problem to persist? How might it be corrected? How is this issue important to pediatricians in training? How might it affect pediatric medicine in the future? We are looking for authors who take a stand and support it with evidence from the literature, and for articles with an “edge.” A narrative thread that engages the reader and includes observations drawn from the author’s clinical and professional experiences is recommended.

Points to Consider:

• The first author must be a resident, fellow, or medical student, but does not need to be a SOPT member. Collaborating authors at any career level are welcome.
• One article will be published at least every 4 months as the Feature in Pediatrics.
• Word Limit: 1,200 words
• Reference Limit: 15 references
• Author limit: 4 authors

Specific questions may be directed to Section Editor Jonathan Berken, MD, here.

Historical Perspectives Feature

The historical perspectives Feature is intended to attract concise and engaging historical articles of interest to clinicians. These articles are more akin to a commentary than an original article and cannot be expected to provide the kind of in-depth analysis expected in professional historical journals. The content may draw from original research or develop a particular insight from existing scholarship. These articles are typically qualitative and not divided into the conventional sections appropriate for original scientific contributions. Articles are peer reviewed by professionals with both medical and historical expertise.

Consider the following points as you develop your article:

• Frame a clear question or central argument. Historical articles do not just recite chronologies or lists of persons and dates, they investigate a particular question and develop an argument backed up by sources.
• Set your article in historical context—in its own time and place. Don’t judge the past by the standards of the present. Secondary sources can be very helpful. Search for articles or books that can provide historical background. If you are not familiar with historical scholarship, see “resources” on the Pediatric History Center page of the American Academy of Pediatrics Web site.
• Will your article be of interest to pediatricians (the main audience for Pediatrics)? Is the writing clear, organized, and easy to follow?
• Is it original? Authors who have completed longer historical projects may wish to submit a short article related to a bigger project that may attract new readers to their other scholarship.
• Are assertions in the paper accurate and supported with appropriate references? Most articles will have about 10 to 20 references. Follow the AMA Manual of Style. Specific references in longer sources may require page numbers to be noted in parentheses.

Primary sources (produced by participants or contemporaries) are preferred when possible. The goal is to provide enough information that a reader could independently confirm the assertions in the text. Secondary sources (books and reviews written by historians or physician-historians) should be cited to provide context (to frame the story in space and time) and scholarly background.

Specific questions may be directed to Section Editor Jeffrey P. Baker, MD, PhD (contact).

Global Health Feature

The global health Feature is intended to educate and engage clinicians who might not otherwise be immersed in the global health field. Submissions should provide information or perspective on issues and initiatives of international interest, including health, nutrition, and medical care in low- and middle-income countries. Articles may be broad or specific in focus and should include appropriate references. Please direct questions to Jay Berkelhamer, MD (contact), section editor.

COMSEP Feature

COMSEP (Council on Medical Student Education in Pediatrics) publishes articles on topics of relevance to pediatric medical student education. Articles are solicited internally via a quarterly call through the COMSEP listserv. The number of authors is limited to 3 with at least one author holding an active COMSEP membership. If you have a question, please contact the current section editor Robert Dudas, MD  (contact).

## Pediatrics Perspectives

Abstract length: no abstract
Article length: 1,200 words max
Author limit: Three (3) authors or fewer
Figure/table: No more than one (1) figure or table allowed

Please Note: Pediatrics receives many more Pediatrics Perspectives than the journal can publish. Authors are encouraged to review the Pediatrics Perspectives that have published to ensure that new submissions are unique.

Pediatrics Perspectives are unsolicited opinion pieces that address current topics in issues such as advocacy, public policy, and population health, or clinical topics related to infant, child, and/or adolescent health. Perspectives pieces should include a clear explanation of the issue and potential measures to address it. A short synopsis of current or past personal research on the topic is not appropriate. Perspectives pieces cannot exceed 1,200 words, be written by more than 3 authors, or and have more than 7 references. Pediatrics Perspectives may include 1 figure or 1 table.

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Pediatrics Perspectives.

## Quality Report

Abstract: 250 words or fewer (structured: see Regular Articles)
Article: 3,000 words or fewer
Supplemental content: appropriate for figures, tables, multimedia, measurement tools

Quality Reports are intended to add to our understanding of how to design and implement highly reliable systems of care that optimize the quality, safety, and value of health care delivered to children.

What is suitable to submit as a Quality Report?

• The primary goal of Quality Reports is to share important and meaningful quality improvement projects.  Submissions should describe sustainable and replicable initiatives that have been evaluated using quality improvement methods.  Submissions that include assessment of impact on costs will be given high priority.  Pilot projects of interventions to improve quality of care may be acceptable if there are important lessons that can inform further quality-improvement efforts.
• Reports of clinical trials to assess whether interventions are effective are better suited as Regular Articles.
• If you are uncertain whether your manuscript is appropriate as a Quality Report, e-mail Munish Gupta, MD, MMSc (contact).

What format should authors use when submitting a Quality Report?

• The general instructions to authors regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict-of-interest statements) also apply to Quality Reports.
• Authors should follow the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 2.0) Guidelines. The SQUIRE guidelines are described in detail on the SQUIRE website (www.squire-statement.org).  Of note, the SQUIRE guidelines acknowledge that different reports will have different areas of emphasis, and not every SQUIRE element may be necessary for every quality improvement manuscript.
• All submissions should follow the IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) format consistent with the rest of the journal.  The SQUIRE guidelines suggest specific elements that should be addressed in each text section; authors should complete the table below indicating the location of each SQUIRE element in their manuscript.  This table should be uploaded as a supplemental file.

Table of SQUIRE elements

 Text Section SQUIRE Elements and Descriptions Page # in Manuscript Title Include condition and key outcome, and indicate manuscript describes an improvement initiative. Abstract Sections should include background, methods, results, and conclusion. The results should summarize findings in relation to key specific aims. Introduction Summarizes problem description, available knowledge, rationale, and specific aims. Methods Describe context, interventions, measures, study of the intervention and analysis, and ethical considerations.   Context should include environmental and team elements relevant to the design and success of the initiative.   Interventions should be described in sufficient detail to allow replication by others.   Measures should include outcome, process, balancing, and structural measures as appropriate, and should have clear operational definitions.  If costs are included in the measures, the method of cost assessment should be clear and rigorous.    The study of the interventions should include the approaches chosen for assessing the impact of the interventions, and whether the observed outcomes are related to the interventions. In general, quality reports will use time-series analysis such as run charts or control charts, and in these cases, authors should describe how such charts were developed and analyzed (e.g., rules governing changes in center lines and control limits).    Authors should review their institution’s guidelines around review of quality improvement projects.  If IRB approval and/or formal IRB exemption from review was not obtained, authors should explain the reasons this was not necessary. Results Describe the actual course of the interventions, including contextual elements, and present results in relation to specific aims and in the same order as in the introduction and methods.   If run or control charts are used, results should include a description of chart interpretations, including presence of signal or special cause variation.    Associations between outcomes, interventions, and relevant contextual elements should be described. Discussion Discussion should include summary of results, interpretation, limitations, and final conclusions.   Key findings should be summarized in relation to specific aims.   Interpretation should include assessment of association between interventions and outcomes, comparison of results with other publications, and consideration of reasons for differences between observed and expected outcomes.   Limitations to the internal validity and generalizability of the work should be described, including efforts to address these limitations.   Conclusions should highlight the impact of the project, sustainability, and potential for spread. Figures In general, figures showing time-series analysis such as run charts or control charts will be needed.  Charts should be annotated to show timing of interventions.

## Review Article

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (structured or unstructured, depending on review type)
Article length: 4,000 words or fewer

Review Articles combine and/or summarize data from the knowledge base of a topic. Preference is given to systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clearly stated questions over traditional narrative reviews of a topic.  Both types of review require an abstract; the abstract of a narrative review may be unstructured (no headings, run in a single paragraph). See below for abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Review Articles combine and/or summarize data from the knowledge base of a topic. Preference is given to systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clearly stated questions. Non-systematic reviews usually receive a low priority score. The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to Review Articles.

Reports of systematic reviews and meta-analyses should use the PRISMA statement (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) as a guide, and include a completed PRISMA checklist and flow diagram to accompany the main text. Blank templates of the checklist and flow diagram can be downloaded from the PRISMA Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org).

Systematic reviews should use structured abstracts. Headings should include: Context, Objective, Data Sources, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Results, Limitations, and Conclusions (see Iverson et al1[pp22-23]). Journal requirements for the abstract supersede the PRISMA checklist.

## Special Article

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
Article length: 4,000 words or fewer

Special Articles reflect topics or issues of relevance to pediatric health care that do not conform to a traditional study format. Special Articles may address broad social and ethical issues, scientific methodology, or other scholarly topics, and may include reports from consensus committees and working groups. These articles should not include specific guidelines or recommendations for practice. Guidelines and recommendations from groups outside of the AAP must be approved through the AAP and may be published at the discretion of the AAP in the dedicated AAP section of the journal (see below).

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) apply to Special Articles.

## State-of-the-Art Review Article

Abstract length: 250 words or fewer (unstructured: no headings, run in a single paragraph)
Article length: 4,000 words or fewer

State-of-the-Art Review Articles provide a comprehensive and scholarly overview of an important clinical subject with a principle focus on developments in the past 5 years. State-of-the-Art Review Articles are usually invited.  If you are interested in submitting a State-of-the-Art Review, please email Associate Editor Dr. Steven Zeichner (contact) and copy Publications Editor Mark Plemmons (contact).

The general instructions regarding submission (including cover letter, title page requirements, contributors' statement page, journal style guidance, and conflict of interest statements) also apply to State-of-the-Art Reviews.

## Video Abstracts

The journal publishes video abstracts with articles by invitation only. Guidelines will be provided upon invitation.

## "From the American Academy of Pediatrics"- For AAP Use Only

The editorial process and manuscript selection for publication in Pediatrics are separate from the processes and materials that are produced or endorsed by the AAP. These materials are published in print and online in a visually distinct section of the journal. AAP Clinical Practice Guidelines, Policy Statements, Clinical Reports and other AAP-produced or endorsed materials that are intended to help guide practice are highly valued by membership and are published in this section of the journal at the sole discretion of the AAP. Content produced or endorsed by the AAP is reviewed and approved outside of the Pediatrics editorial process.

Do not select an AAP Clinical Report, AAP Policy Statement, or other AAP article type for your submission. These are reserved for internal AAP use only.

## Cover Letter

The cover letter serves to assure the editors that the article and the authors meet the conditions of publication.  A brief paragraph that provides any additional information that may be useful to the editors is welcome, but keep in mind that the need for a long cover letter may indicate that the article does not speak for itself.  Reviewers will not see the cover letter; cover letters are not a Title Page.

All authors must affirm the following in their cover letter before their manuscript is considered:

• That the manuscript is being submitted only to Pediatrics, that it will not be submitted elsewhere, while under consideration, that it has not been published elsewhere, and, should it be published in Pediatrics, that it will not be published elsewhere—either in similar form or verbatim—without permission of the editors. These restrictions do not apply to abstracts or to press reports of presentations at scientific meetings.
• That all authors are responsible for reported research.
• That all authors have participated in the concept and design, analysis and interpretation of data, and drafting or revising of the manuscript, and that they have approved the manuscript as submitted.

If a manuscript uses the same or similar data contained in previously published articles, the authors must state this in the cover letter (and provide citations to the related or possibly duplicative materials).

If the manuscript has been posted on a preprint server, the authors must state this in the cover letter (and include a link to the preprint server posting). Manuscripts should not be submitted to preprint servers while under consideration for publication.

## Getting Started

1. Go to https://submit-pediatrics.aappublications.org/ and sign in, or click the “create a new account” link if you are a first-time user.
2. You should be automatically be taken to your Author Area at sign-in.
3. Click “Submit a new manuscript

To start a new submission, click “Submit a new manuscript” in your Author Area.

You must complete each step to submit your manuscript. Use proper capitalization - Do not use all CAPS, or all lowercase, or HTML. Click on the “Save/Continue” button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.

Submission Guide. The first screen you’ll see is the “Submission Guide.” This page provides a description of each article type and guidance on what is required for each section of the submission system. Once you’ve reviewed this page, click “Begin Submission” at the bottom of the page.

Manuscript Basics. Select your article type and enter the title, short title, and abstract. Review your article type earlier in the Submission Guide for further details on abstracts. The Article Summary and the What’s Known/What’s Added summaries are required for Regular Articles only (if this does not apply, input “NA” to skip).

Manuscript Files. In this step, you will be prompted to upload your files.

The first screen you’ll see includes information on the file types supported for each upload type (manuscript file, image files (which include tables and figures), and supplemental data or additional files). Click Save/Continue to submit your files.

Your main manuscript file should be submitted by dragging the file into the green box labeled “Drop manuscript files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box. Labels are preferred, but not required. Please note that these labels are not a substitute for the required table/figure legends in your manuscript files.

Your table and figure files should be submitted by dragging them into the gray box labeled “Drop image and table/figure files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box.

Supplemental data files should be submitted by dragging them into the blue box labeled “Drop supplemental files here” or by clicking the “Select Files” link in this box. Once you drag a file into this box, you will have the option of checking an “Internal Use” box if the file provided is for editor use only and not to be shared with the peer reviewers.

Once you’ve dragged over or selected your files, click “Upload Files” to complete the upload. Once you are taken to the next screen, use the navigation links on the left-hand side to move to the next step.

Abstract, Cover Letter and Questions. Enter your abstract and cover letter in the text boxes provided. If your article type does not require an abstract, type “NA” in the text box. If your manuscript reports the results of a clinical trial, you must enter a Data Sharing Statement and the clinical trial number in the text boxes provided. See Data Sharing for more information. Reponses to the funding questions are required.

Keywords. Enter the appropriate keywords/categories for your submission.

Reviewer Suggestions/Exclusions. To indicate any preferred and non-preferred reviewers, enter the reviewer's information in the appropriate sections.

Author List. To add yourself as an author, click the “Add Author” button, then the “I Am This Author” button in the top right corner of the popup screen. If you are also the corresponding author, click the “Mark as Corresponding Author” box, then click “Save.” You can add additional authors by entering their email address to search for them in the system. You can change the author order in your list by dragging author entries to the desired position.

Submission Proofing. Here you will review the data entered for each step. You can revise any section by clicking the “Edit” button next to the section you’d like to revise.

At the time of provisional acceptance, all authors will receive instructions for submitting an online copyright form. No paper will be scheduled for an issue and move onto production until all authors have completed their copyright forms.

We do not accept copyright forms via fax, e-mail, or regular mail unless a technical problem with the online author account cannot be resolved. Every effort should be made for authors to use the online copyright system. Corresponding authors can log in to the submission system at any time to check on the status of any co-author’s copyright form.

All accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the American Academy of Pediatrics and may not be published elsewhere, in whole or in part, without written permission from the AAP (with certain exceptions: authors retain certain rights including the right to republish their work in books and other scholarly collections). Authors who were employees of the United States Government at the time the work was done should so state on the copyright form. Articles authored by federal employees remain in the public domain.

Note: Pediatrics cannot accept any copyright that has been altered, revised, amended, or otherwise changed. Our original electronic copyright form must be used as is.

### Disclosure Forms

At the time of provisional acceptance, all authors are required to submit a disclosure form. Pediatrics adheres to ICMJE policy and uses an online disclosure e-form in order for authors to do so. The collection of forms is automated within the online submission system. Note: Pediatrics cannot accept any disclosure that has been altered, revised, amended, or otherwise changed. Our original electronic disclosure form must be used as is.

### Ordering Reprints

Reprint order forms will be sent to the corresponding author. If you are not the corresponding author and wish to order reprints, you may either contact the corresponding author or use the contact info below. Reprints are available at any time after publication. However, reprints ordered after publication may cost more. Delivery of reprints is usually 4 to 6 weeks after publication.

Lori Laughman
Reprint Account Manager - Author Reprints
Office Telephone: Call: 717-632-8448
E-mail

Pediatrics welcomes reader comments on published articles. To submit a comment, click on the "Comments" tab that appears with each article, then click on "Submit a Comment." Comments submitted via e-mail or regular mail will not be considered for posting or returned.

The editors review all comments submitted online; comments are not peer-reviewed. The decision regarding whether to post a comment is at the sole discretion of the editors, and all editorial decisions are final. The submitting author will receive an email if the comment is posted, which generally occurs within 3-5 days of submission. No email notification will be sent if the comment is not posted. Once a comment has been posted on the website, you will not have the right to have it removed or edited. Pediatrics shall, however, be able to remove any comment at its discretion.

Note: Comments are online responses only. They are neither published nor cited in Medline/PubMed. Comments that raise issues addressed in prior comments are unlikely to be posted.

Be sure to follow all of the consideration criteria below; you will not be able to modify your comment after submission.

• To ensure timely discussion, comments are limited to articles published within the previous 6 months.
• The editors will consider posting comments that contribute substantially to the discussion of the original article to which the reader is responding. All editorial decisions are final.
• We will consider posting comments from all readers regardless of professional background. Decisions about posting are made based on the content, not the professional background of the respondent.
• Pediatrics does not allow multiple comment submissions from the same reader for a particular article.
• Comments must be in English and not exceed 500 words, not including references.
• Comments must have no more than 3 authors. Please insert commas between author names. If author affiliations include commas, insert semicolons between each affiliation.
• Comments must have no more than 5 references.
• Comments cannot include web links. We will remove any web links from responses chosen for posting. The only exceptions are links to AAP publications and to government documents/webpages; these must be correctly cited as references (do not paste them in the body of the comment) using AMA style.
• Tables, figures, and other attachments are not allowed.
• Pediatrics will not post comments that are, or appear in the opinion of the editor to be, obscene, libelous, incomprehensible, defamatory, or rude; that include advertising, address personal health questions about the respondent or family members; or that give personal health information about identifiable individuals. The decision regarding whether to post any comment is at the sole discretion of the editors; all editorial decisions are final.
• In general, we do not edit reader comments prior to or after posting. The editors may, at their discretion, modify submitted comments either before or after posting the comment.

1. Locate the article online.

2. To respond to the article, scroll to the bottom of the page (or the sidebar on the left-side of the screen) and click the “Add comment” button. Pediatrics only allows one comment per author per article.

3. Add your name, affiliation, comment title, and the comment response. (Note that no HTML tags are allowed.  Lines and paragraphs are automatically recognized. The <br /> line break, <p> paragraph and </p> close paragraph tags are inserted automatically. If paragraphs are not recognized simply add a couple of blank lines.)

4. Click "Submit".

To read comments on an article that have been posted, click on the "Comments"link in the sidebar on the left side of the screen.

### How to Cite a Comment

Example:

Puttgen, Katherine. RE: Topical Timolol Maleate Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas [comment], Pediatrics (November 2, 2016),
https://publications.aap.org/pediatrics/article/138/3/e20160355/52672/Topical-Timolol-Maleate-Treatment-of-Infantile

## Letters to the Editor

All Letters to the Editor must first be submitted as online comments (and must conform to comment requirements). Selected comments may then be chosen for publication in the indexed edition of Pediatrics as “Letters to the Editor.” The editors may choose to abridge and edit a comment prior to publication as a Letter to the Editor in Pediatrics without notifying or seeking approval from the author. Only these selected responses will be cited in MedLine. Any letters submitted through the official manuscript submission site will be withdrawn.

At the time of provisional acceptance, the comment author will receive instructions for submitting an online copyright form. No comment will be scheduled for an issue’s Letters to the Editor section and move onto production until the copyright form is completed.

## Errata

The corresponding author of an article can request a correction to a published manuscript. The editors will decide if an erratum is in order.

## Supplements to Pediatrics

Supplements are sponsored sets of articles on a single topic or a theme pertinent to Pediatrics. Such sets of articles may come from the proceedings of sponsored meetings, reports from task forces or committees, organizations interested in a particular topic, or research groups. Please note: Pediatrics does not accept supplements financed by for-profit corporations if the topics in the supplement bear close relation to the products sold by the corporation. All supplements are peer-reviewed. The contents of all supplements are open-access from the date of publication.

### Supplement Costs

• The cost to sponsor a printed supplement to Pediatrics is $975 per page, with a minimum of 32 pages. This estimate includes all costs for production, copyediting, press, distribution and postage, and online production and hosting of the supplement. A budget contract estimate will be issued for your approval prior to scheduling. The final price includes 100 complimentary copies of the supplement. Additional printed copies can be purchased by contacting Kate Larson, Senior Managing Editor, here. • We offer the option of publishing online-only supplements to Pediatrics. The submission and production processes are exactly the same as those supplements that are published both in print and online. The difference is that no copies of the supplement are printed, thereby eliminating costs associated with printing and postage. The cost to sponsor an online-only supplement is$485 per page.
• A 50% deposit is required at budget contract and scheduling.

### Conceptual Approval

Approval of the topic of a supplement must be obtained from Alex Kemper, MD, MPH, MS, Deputy Editor, prior to submission. To facilitate this process, we ask for a brief letter outlining the supplement, a proposed table of contents listing titles and authors of prospective papers, and a statement describing who will underwrite the cost of the supplement. This material should be sent to the deputy editor (here) during the planning stages of the supplement, ideally several months prior to submission.

### Submission Requirements

To submit the supplement after conceptual approval, you must submit via the manuscript system.

• Download and view a Supplement guide here. Submit the supplement under a single manuscript number with multiple files and articles as noted in this guide. The formatting requirements for articles also apply to supplement articles.

Once the supplement is received by the deputy editor, it is sent out in its entirety to reviewers. If the supplement is provisionally accepted, revisions may be required. If revisions cannot be made to the satisfaction of the editors, the supplement may be rejected.

We estimate 120 days from final acceptance to publication. However, this timeline can vary depending on the number of other supplements already scheduled for publication.

## Pediatrics Editorial Offices

Vermont (Office of the Editor-in-Chief)
University of Vermont College of Medicine
89 Beaumont Ave
Given Courtyard, S261
Burlington, VT 05405

Ohio (Office of the Deputy Editor)
Natiowide Children's Hospital
700 Children's Drive
Columbus, OH 43205

Publisher’s Office
345 Park Blvd
Itasca, IL 60143
Email

Senior Managing Editor
Kate Larson, Itasca, IL
Email

Publications Editor
Mark Plemmons, Itasca, IL
Email

Editorial Staff
Nina B. Jaffe, Burlington, VT

#### Problems With Article Submission?

• Email our editorial staff here.